新葡亰8455net 新葡亰8455net 新葡亰8455net称该规定是政府成本高昂的过度监管的证明

新葡亰8455net称该规定是政府成本高昂的过度监管的证明

  Directions:

November 21, 2002EC to set marine fuel sulphur limitThe European
Commission has just adopted a new strategy to reduce the impact of
ship’s atmospheric emissions on the environment and human health. An
important part of the strategy is a proposal to reduce the sulphur
contents of marine fuels used in the European Union. Environment
Commissioner Margot Wallstrom said: “The Commission’s new strategy to
reduce ship emissions gives the maritime industry a timely opportunity
to improve its green credentials. The new, stricter limits for sulphur
in marine fuels that we are proposing to establish will reduce sulphur
dioxide emissions in the EU by over 500,000 tonnes every year. These
reductions will be targeted to deliver the greatest possible benefits –
in ports and coastal areas close to where people live, and in
acid-sensitive ecosystems in northern Europe. Working together with
Member States and industry, we want to create a clean new future for
marine transport in the EU.” The Commission’s first priority is to
reduce ship emissions of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter from
ships, which are directly related to the sulphur content of marine
fuels. Marine fuel has an average sulphur content of 2.7%, or 27,000
parts per million, compared with automotive gasoline, which has only
around 50 parts per million. The Commission is therefore presenting a
proposal for a directive to reduce the sulphur content of marine fuels
used in the EU. The proposal’s main provisions are: a 1.5% sulphur limit
for marine fuels used by all seagoing vessels in the North Sea, English
Channel and Baltic Sea, in line with the International Maritime
Organization’s MARPOL Annex VI sulphur limits, in order to reduce the
effect of ship emissions on acidification in Northern Europe and on air
quality the same 1.5% sulphur limit for marine fuels used by passenger
vessels on regular services to or from any port within the EU, in order
to improve air quality around ports and coasts, and create sufficient
demand to ensure an EU-wide supply of low sulphur fuel a 0.2% sulphur
limit on fuel used by ships while they are at berth in ports inside the
EU, to reduce local emissions of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter,
and improve local air quality. >The Commission says that these
measures will have significant human health benefits reducing the
incidence of asthma, bronchitis and heart failure, particularly in
populated port areas. It is estimated that the ship emissions reductions
achieved as a result of this proposal would lead to at least 2000 fewer
life years lost in the EU through long-term exposure to emissions, 750
fewer deaths from short-term exposure, and 300 fewer hospital admissions
for respiratory illness. The measures will also help reduce exceedances
of critical loads for acidification, which remain a serious problem in
lake and forest ecosystems in northern Europe. As well as the sulphur
proposal, the strategy sets out a number of other important actions
including a push for tougher global emissions standards at the
International Maritime Organization, the development of new market-based
measures to reduce ship emissions beyond regulatory standards, and the
creation of a new Clean Marine Award scheme to promote low-emission
shipping in the European Union. Background The Commission says that ship
emissions contribute to acid rain, ground-level ozone , air pollution,
and marine eutrophication in the European Union. They also contribute to
the global problems of climate change and ozone depletion. A recent
study for the Commission looked at all shipping journeys starting or
finishing in Europe, and estimated the emissions of various pollutants.
The results were startling for example, by 2010, emissions of sulphur
dioxide in EU sea areas are likely to equate to 75% of total land-based
emissions, including those from all cars, trucks and industrial plants.
The picture for nitrogen oxides is not much better, with ship emissions
likely to equal two thirds of land emissions by 2010. The study also
found that 50% of ship movements in EU seas are made by vessels flagged
in countries outside the European Union. The reason that emissions from
ships are now so conspicuous is because, to date, the maritime sector
has been unregulated – unlike other industrial and transport sectors
that are already covered by EU regulations. This also means that ships
can now reduce their emissions more cheaply than other sectors where
action has already been taken – in other words, it is cheaper to reduce
one tonne of emissions from shipping than it is to reduce the same tonne
of emissions from another source. Today’s strategy proposes to reduce
ships’ SO2 emissions through a proposal to require lower sulphur marine
fuels to be used in EU seas and ports, as outlined above. To reduce
ships’ NOx emissions, the strategy proposes that the Commission should
work with Member States to press for tougher engine standards through
the International Maritime Organization. This approach will reduce NOx
emissions from all the ships entering EU seas not just those flagged in
the European Union. In parallel the Commission aims to develop
market-based instruments to encourage shipowners to use NOx reduction
technologies in EU seas. The strategy also sets out actions to reduce
ships’ emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances.

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined
segments into Chinese. Your translations should be written neatly on the
ANSWER SHEET。

  Washington—The Obama administration on Wednesday announced a
long-delayed environmental regulation to curb emissions of ozone, a
smog-causing pollutant linked to asthma, heart disease and premature
death. (1)The sweeping regulation, which are aimed at smog caused by
power plants and factories across the country, particularly in the
Midwest, is the latest in a series of Environmental Protection Agency
controls on air pollution that wafts from smokestacks and tailpipes.
Such regulations, released under the authority of the Clean Air Act,
have become a hallmark of President Obama’s administration。

  Environmentalists and public health advocates have praised the
E.P.A. Rules as a powerful environmental legacy. (2)Republicans,
manufacturer and the fossil fuel industry have sharply criticized them
as an examples of costly government overreach. The National Association
of Manufacturers has called the proposal “the most expensive regulation
ever。” The proposed regulation would lower the current threshold for
ozone pollution to a range of 65 to 70 parts per billion, from 75 parts
per billion. (3)That range is less stringent than the standard of 60 per
billion sought by environmental groups, but the E.P.A. proposal would
also seek public comment on a parts-per-billion plan, keeping open the
possibility that the final rule could be stricter。

  The agency estimates that the new regulation would by 2025 prevent
from 320,000 to 960,000 asthma attacks in children, and from 330,000 to
1 million missed school days. It also estimates that by 2025 the rule
would prevent 750 to 4,300 premature deaths, 1,400 to 4,300
asthma-related emergency room visits and 65,000 to 180,000 missed
workdays. (4)The regulation would come with a high cost to industry,
which the E.P.A. Estimates would be $ 3.9 billion in 2015, using a
standard of 70 parts per billion. The cost would be $15 billion in 2015
at a standard of 65 parts per billion. (The E.P.A. chose 2025 as an
example because that is when the agency expects the regulation to be
fully in force。)

  Next year, the E.P.A. is expected to make final two more historic
Clean Air Act rules aimed at cutting planet-warming greenhouse gas
emission from coal-fired power plants. (5)Those rules, which are
intended to curb pollutants that contribute to climate change, could
lead to the shutdown of hundreds of power plants and freeze construction
of future coal plants。

  参考译文:

  这项全面的监管规定针对的是全美,尤其是中西部地区的发电站和工厂导致的雾霾。美国国家环境保护局已经对从烟囱到排气管排放的空气污染物实施了一系列管控,而上述规定就是其中最新的一例。

  共和党人、生产商和化石燃料行业则发起了强烈的批评,称该规定是政府成本高昂的过度监管的证明。

  这个区间没有一些环保组织希望的60ppb的上限严格,但EPA的提案也会征求公众对60ppb的方案的看法,意味着最终的决定有可能会更加严格。

  这项监管规定将为行业带来极大的成本,EPA估计,以70ppb的排放上限计算,在2025年所耗费的成本为39亿美元,以65ppb的排放标准计算,成本为150亿美元。(EPA选择以2025年为例,是因为预计规定到那时将充分实施。)

  这些规定旨在控制造成气候变化的污染物,可能会导致数百家发电厂关停,并停止再修建火电厂。

 

标签:, , , ,

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

相关文章

网站地图xml地图